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CCNA Networking Basics for beginners|Routing and Switching

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What is a Router:-

The router, at least the common home network device that is usually called a router, is the piece of network hardware that allows communication between your local home networks—like your personal computers and other connected devices.


The router is a physical or virtual internetworking device that is designed to receive, analyze, and forward data packets between computer networks. A router examines a destination IP address of a given data packet, and it uses the headers and forwarding tables to decide the best way to transfer the packets.

What is ACL(Access Control List)

Router Choose the Best Path

  • Routers use static routes and dynamic routing protocols to learn about remote networks and build their routing tables.
  • Routers use routing tables to determine the best path to send packets.
  • Routers encapsulate the packet and forward it to the interface indicated in the routing table.

Router Forwarding Methods

  • Process switching – An older packet forwarding mechanism still available for Cisco routers.
  • Fast switching – A common packet forwarding mechanism which uses a fast-switching cache to store next-hop information.
  • Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) – The most recent, fastest, and preferred Cisco IOS packet-forwarding mechanism.

router forwrding methods

Configure Router Basic Settings

  • Name the device –Distinguishes it from other routers
  • Secure management access – Secures privileged EXEC, user EXEC, and Telnet access, and encrypts passwords.
  • Configure a banner –Provides legal notification of unauthorized access.
  • Save the Configuration

router basic settings

Configure an IPv4 Router Interface

To be available, a router interface  must be:

  • Configured with an address and subnet mask.
  • Activated using no shutdown command. By default, LAN and WAN interfaces are not activated.
  • Configured with the clock rate command on the Serial cable end labelled DCE.
Router IPV4 Settings
Router IPV4 Settings

Configure an IPv6 Router Interface

Configure interface with IPv6 address and subnet mask:

  • Use the ipv6 addressipv6-address/ipv6-length [link-local | eui-64]interface configuration command.
  • Activate using the no shutdown command.

router ipv6 settings

IPv6 interfaces can support more than one address:

  • Configure a specified global unicast – ipv6address ipv6-address/ipv6-length
  • Configure a global IPv6 address with an interface identifier (ID) in the low-order 64 bits  – ipv6address ipv6-address/ipv6-length eui-64
  • Configure a link-local address – ipv6address ipv6-address/ipv6-length link-local

IPV6 settings

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