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How does OSI Reference Model work in Data Communication?

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How does OSI Reference Model work in Data Communication? let’s know about that concept about OSI Reference Model in data communication.

How does OSI Reference Model work in Data Communication? In this tutorial, we will discuss that. The Open Systems Interconnection model is a conceptual means a logical model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or Data Communication system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.

How does OSI Reference Model work in Data Communication? There are seven layers of the OSI Reference Model Let’s know about Seven Layers of OSI Reference Modal.

Physical Layer

The last layer of the OSI Model is totally concerned with electrically or optically transmitting raw data or unstructured data means bits in the network from the physical layer of the sending device to the physical layer of the receiving device.

It include specifications such as electrical voltages, pin layout, cabling system, and radio frequencies signals. 

At the physical layer, one might find “physical” resources such as hubs in the network, cabling system, repeaters, network adapters or modems are also work in the Physical layer.

Data Link Layer

Now we discuss the data link layer, directly connected nodes are used to perform node-to-node Communication and data transfer where data is packaged into frames. It Means the first data arranged into the package and then it travels in the form of frames.

The data link layer also correct the errors which occurred in the physical layer.

Data Link layer divides into two layers.

  1. MAC(Media Access Layer)Layer.
  2. LLC(Logical Link Control).

MAC Layer.

The first, media access control (MAC), provides flow control and multiplexing in the network for device transmissions over a network.

LLC Layer.

The second, the logical link control (LLC), this layer responsible flow and error control over the physical medium as well as identifies line different protocols.

Network Devices and their functions

Network Layer

It is responsible for routing the data from one location to another and addressing of datagrams (packets) from one network to another using logical addresses (e.g. IP addresses). The network layer finds the destination address by using logical addresses, such as IP (internet protocol).

The most important network devices that operate at this layer it is Routers

Transport Layer

The transport layer is a layer that is responsible to manage the delivery and error checking of data packets. It regulates the size of data, sequencing, and ultimately the transfer of data between two different systems and hosts. 

the most common example of the transport layer is TCP or the Transmission Control Protocol.

Session Layer

Session Layer enables applications on end systems to establish a connection between two communication devices and provides the mechanism for controlling the dialogue between them.

Session layer also responsible authentication and reconnections between two devices.

A session or connection between machines is set up the connection, managed the connection, and terminate the connection at layer 5.

Presentation Layer

The presentation layer resolves differences in data representation between end systems and encodes data means convert data into different codes in a standard format for transmission across the network. This layer also responsible for encryption and data compression.

This layer is also called Syntax layer.

Application Layer

This is a layer in which both the end user and the application layer connect directly with the software application. This layer contains management functions and mechanisms to support distributed applications.

The application layer identifies communication users, resource availability, and synchronizes communication between two devices This layer sees network services provided to end-user applications such as a web browser or MS Office .

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