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Types of ROM in Computer Architecture

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Types of ROM in Computer Architecture

ROM stands for Read-Only Memory. Types of ROM in Computer Architecture is the article which helps us about the memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The info is stored forever in such memories during production. A ROM stores such instructions that are required to start a computer.

Read-only memory is also important in the context of non-volatile memory as a whole.

Non-volatile memory is any kind of memory that is stateful and does not get erased at the end of a live user session. Another way to say this is that non-volatile memory is enduring and more permanent than temporary.

Experts classify non-volatile memory as one of two fundamental types—mechanically addressed non-volatile memory, and electrically addressed non-volatile memory.

The conventional hard drive is an example of mechanical non-volatile memory, and solid-state technology represents electrical non-volatile memory.

This operation is referred to as bootstrap. ROM chips are not only used in the computer but also in other electronic items like washing machines and microwave ovens.

Let us now discuss the various types of ROMs and their characteristics.

Why Need ROM

ROM chips are used not only in computers but in most other electronic substances as well. Because data is fully combined at the ROM chip’s manufacture, data stored can neither be removed nor replaced.

This means permanent and safe data storage. However, if an error is made in making, a ROM chip becomes impracticable. The most luxurious stage of ROM manufacture, therefore, is making the template.

Difference between RAM and ROM in Computer Architecture

  • ROM can hold data forever and RAM cannot.
  • ROM chip is non-volatile and the RAM chip is volatile in nature.

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MROM (Masked ROM) in Computer Architecture

The very first ROMs were hard-wired devices that limited a pre-programmed set of data or orders. These kinds of ROMs are known as masked ROMs, which are cheap.

type of rom in computer architecture

PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) in Computer Architecture

PROM is read-only memory that can be adapted only once by a user. The user buys a blank PROM and enters the wanted fillings using a PROM program. Inside the PROM chip, there are minor fuses which are burnt open through programming. It can be programmed only once and is not effaceable.

EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)

EPROM can be erased by revealing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. Usually, an EPROM eraser attains this function. During programming, an electrical charge is stuck in an insulated gate region. The charge is booked for more than 10 years because the charge has no leak path.

Ultra-violet light is passed through a quartz crystal window (lid) to erase this charge. This contact with ultra-violet light dispels the charge. During normal use, the quartz lid is sealed with a label.

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EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)

EEPROM is programmed and removed electrically. It can be erased and reprogrammed for about ten thousand periods. Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 ms (millisecond).

In EEPROM, any site can be selectively erased and programmed. EEPROMs can be erased one byte at a time, rather than erasing the whole chip. Hence, the process of reprogramming is supple but slow.

Flash Memory in Computer Architecture

Flash memory (flash) is a current type of EEPROM. Flash memory can be removed and rewritten quicker than normal EEPROM, and newer designs have the eye that is very high endurance (exceeding 1,000,000 cycles).

Modern NAND flash memory can efficiently utilize the silicon chip area, allowing individual ICs to have a capacity of up to 32 GB in 2007; this eye, along with its toughness and physical toughness, enables NAND to flash to substitute magnetic in some requests, such as USB flash drives.


Advantages of ROM

The advantages of ROM are as follows −

  • Non-volatile in nature
  • Cannot be unintentionally changed
  • Inexpensive than RAMs
  • Informal to test
  • More dependable than RAMs
  • Static and do not need refreshing
  • Contents are continuously known and can be verified


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